APNIC Document identity
|Title:||Policies for IPv4 address space management in the Asia Pacific region|
|Date of original publication:||9 May 2011||Date of this version:||13 December 2013|
Table of contents
3.2. Criteria for subsequent LIR delegations
4.2. Address usage estimates
4.3. Delegations to downstream IRs
APNIC (the Asia Pacific Network Information Centre) is the Regional Internet Registry (RIR) for the Asia Pacific region, responsible for distributing public Internet address space and related resources in the region and for coordinating the development and implementation of policies to manage those resources.
The policies described in this document have been developed by the Internet community of the Asia Pacific region through a consensus process facilitated by APNIC. They are to be implemented by APNIC and by the National Internet Registries (NIRs) and the Local Internet Registries (LIRs) throughout the region.
This document describes policies for the responsible management of global IPv4 public address space in the Asia Pacific region. Specifically, this document focuses on policies relating to the delegation of IPv4 address space.
This document does not describe specific addressing policies related to IPv6, Multicast, Private Address Space, or Autonomous System numbers. It should be read in conjunction with other APNIC documents, including those dealing with membership and fees.
This document does not provide specific details of request evaluation by APNIC, or of expectations relating to specific technologies. Such details are dependent on technological advances, and may change frequently. Therefore, to assist organizations to request address space, APNIC will publish separate guidelines documents relating to specific technologies or techniques as required.
This document does not provide specific details on how networks can use Private address space. The use of private address space may be appropriate for addressing networks that are connected to the Internet via a firewall, and where there are not technical requirements for the use of public address space. In general, private address space should be used for networks not connected to the Internet.
This document must also be read in conjunction with the "Policy environment for Internet number resource distribution in the Asia Pacific", which outlines the structure and principals of Internet number resource distribution in the Asia Pacific region, the goals of address management, and definitions of terms used in this document. The document can be found at:
3. Delegations from the APNIC IPv4 address pool
The current minimum delegation size is a /24 (256 addresses).
As of Friday, 15 April 2011, each new or existing APNIC account holder is only eligible to request and receive delegations totalling a maximum /22 worth of address space from the APNIC final /8 IPv4 address pool (103/8 block). To receive a delegation they must meet the criteria specified in one of the following sections of this policy document:
- 3.1 Criteria for initial LIR delegation
- 3.2 Criteria for subsequent LIR delegations
- 3.3 Criteria for small multihoming delegations
- 3.4 Criteria for Internet Exchange Points
- 3.5 Criteria for critical infrastructure
In the event of additional IPv4 address space being allocated to APNIC from the 'IANA Recovered IPv4 Pool' as the result of the "Global policy for post exhaustion IPv4 allocation mechanisms by the IANA", each APNIC account holder will become eligible to request and receive additional delegations up to a maximum of /22 address space from an APNIC non-103/8 IPv4 address pool. To receive a delegation they must meet one of the above criteria as specified in this policy document.
If subsequent allocations from the IANA plus returns from APNIC account holders prove sufficient to extend this to additional rounds, subsequent delegations will be made under the same criteria.
3.1. Criteria for initial LIR delegation
To be eligible, an LIR must:
- Have used a /24 from their upstream provider or demonstrate an immediate need for a /24,
- Have complied with applicable policies in managing all address space previously delegated to it (including historical delegations), and
- Demonstrate a detailed plan for use of a /23 within a year
3.2. Criteria for subsequent LIR delegations
After receiving an initial LIR delegation, all subsequent delegations will depend on the following:
- The LIR's verified usage rate (which is the rate at which the LIR made delegations from relevant past address space, including historical delegations)
- Their documented plans for address space, and
- Their degree of compliance with APNIC policies with respect to relevant past delegations.
Based on these factors, APNIC and NIRs will delegate address space to meet the LIR's estimated needs for a period up to one year up to the maximum allowed delegation under Section 3. If APNIC or the NIR make a delegation based on a period of less than one year, then they must inform the LIR of the length of the period and the reasons for selecting it.
3.2.1. Prior delegations to be used first
An LIR is not eligible to receive subsequent delegations until its current delegations account for at least eighty percent of the total address space it holds. This is referred to as the "eighty percent rule".
3.2.2. Special circumstances – large delegations
An LIR may request an exception to the eighty percent rule if it needs to make a single delegation that is larger than the amount of space it has remaining.
3.3. Criteria for small multihoming delegations
An organization is eligible if it is currently multihomed with provider-based addresses, or demonstrates a plan to multihome within one month.
Organizations requesting a delegation under these terms must demonstrate that they are able to use 25% of the requested addresses immediately and 50% within one year.
3.4. Criteria for Internet Exchange Points
Internet Exchange Points (IXP) are eligible to receive a delegation from APNIC to be used exclusively to connect the IXP participant devices to the Exchange Point.
Global routability of the delegation is left to the discretion of the IXP and its participants.
3.5. Criteria for Critical infrastructure
The following critical infrastructure networks, if operating in the Asia Pacific region, are eligible to receive a delegation:
- Root domain name system (DNS) server
- Global top level domain (gTLD) nameservers
- Country code TLD (ccTLDs) nameservers
- Regional Internet Registry (RIRs), and
- National Internet Registry (NIRs)
Delegations to critical infrastructure are available only to the actual operators of the network infrastructure performing such functions. Registrar organizations that do not actually host the network housing the registry infrastructure will not be eligible under this policy.
Exchanges made under this policy remain subject to the address space license policy. See "Policy environment for Internet number resource distribution in the Asia Pacific".
4. LIR address space management
LIRs may delegate address space to their customers subject to the following provisions.
4.1. Assignment window for LIRs
APNIC and NIRs shall apply an assignment window mechanism to help LIRs understand and comply with APNIC policies and the address management goals.
The assignment window indicates the maximum number of addresses an LIR may delegate to an end-user without first seeking a "second opinion". If an LIR wishes to make an delegation that exceeds its delegation window, the LIR must first submit a second opinion request.
LIRs start with a delegation window of zero, meaning all proposed delegations must first be approved.
APNIC, or the relevant NIR, will regularly assess the proficiency of LIR staff in making delegations and seeking second opinions and will review the size of the assignment window accordingly. As the LIR staff become more proficient, the size of their assignment window may be raised.
The maximum assignment window given to any LIR will be a /19 (8,192 addresses).
If an LIR's staff appears to become less proficient (for example, due to the training of new staff or other relevant circumstances) then that LIR's assignment window may be temporarily reduced.
4.2. Address usage estimates
Requests for delegations must be supported by usage estimates based on immediate and projected future need. These requests must be accompanied by documentation that supports the estimates.
The estimates should be made for the following periods:
- Within one year, and
- Within two years
APNIC recommends that, as a general guideline, organizations should base their resource requests on the assumption that 25% of the address space will be used immediately and 50% will be used within one year.
The end-user must provide documentation that supports its one-year usage estimate. If it is not possible for the end-user to estimate confidently what the two-year usage rate will be, then APNIC or the NIR may make a delegation that will be sufficient for the one-year needs only.
4.3. Delegations to downstream IRs
LIRs may delegate address space to their downstream customers, which are operating networks, such as ISPs, subject to the following conditions:
- Delegations are non-portable and must be returned to the LIR if the downstream customer ceases to receive connectivity from the LIR.
- Delegations are subject to the LIR's assignment window. Requests for delegations, which exceed the LIR's assignment window, must first be referred to APNIC for second opinion approval.
- A downstream LIR which receives a sub-delegation from an LIR is only permitted to sub-delegate address space to end-users, not to downstream LIRs.
4.3.1. Effect of delegation to downstream IRs on upstream LIR's usage rate
For the purposes of evaluating the LIR's usage rate (see section 3.2), address space delegated to downstream LIRs will be considered as "used". However, APNIC will give careful consideration to the registration of delegations made by the downstream LIR to their customers and may request supporting documentation as necessary.
4.4. Registration requirements
Internet Registries (IRs) are responsible for promptly and accurately registering their address space use with APNIC as follows:
- All delegations from APNIC to the IR must be registered.
- All delegations to downstream IRs must be registered.
- Delegations made to networks greater than a /30 must be registered.
- Delegations made to networks of a /30 or less may be registered, at the discretion of the IR and the network administrator.
- Delegations to hosts may be registered, at the discretion of the IR and the end-user.
IRs can choose whether or not to designate this information "public". Customer registration details that are not designated "public" will not be generally available via the APNIC Whois Database. The database record will instead direct specific whois enquiries to the IR concerned.
In addition, it is mandatory to register an Incident Report Team (IRT) object for each address block record in the APNIC Whois Database.
4.4.1. Updating registration details
IRs must update their registration records when any of the registration information changes. This is the responsibility of the IR concerned. However, this responsibility may be formally assigned to the end-user as a condition of the original delegation.
4.4.2. Registering contact persons
Administrative and technical contact persons must be registered.
The registered administrative contact ("admin-c") must be someone who is physically located at the site of the network, subject to the following exceptions:
- For residential networks or users, the IR's technical contact may be registered as the admin-c.
- For networks in exceptional circumstances that make it impractical to maintain an on-site administrative contact, an off-site person may be registered as the admin-c.
The technical contact ("tech-c") need not be physically located at the site of the network, but must be a person who is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the network.
4.5. Responsibility to maintain in-addr.arpa records
LIRs should maintain in-addr.arpa resource records for their customers' networks. If a network is not specifically associated with an LIR then the in-addra.arpa records should be maintained by either the appropriate NIR or APNIC.
5. Transfer of address space
IPv4 addresses may be transferred in accordance with the "APNIC transfer, merger, acquisition, and takeover policy". APNIC does not recognize transfers outside this policy and require organizations holding such transfers to return them to the appropriate IR. For more information on this policy, see the "APNIC transfer, merger, acquisition, and takeover policy":
6. How APNIC manages address space
6.1. Reservation for future uses
A /16 will be held in reserve for future uses, as yet unforeseen.
If the reserved /16 remains unused by the time the remaining available space has been delegated, the /16 will be returned to the APNIC pool for distribution under the policy described in Section 3, "Delegations from the APNIC IPv4 address pool".
6.2. IPv4 addresses returned to APNIC
Any IPv4 resources received by APNIC will be placed into the APNIC IPv4 pool for delegation under the policies described in Section 3, "Delegations from the APNIC IPv4 address pool". This placement applies to any IPv4 addresses APNIC receives from IANA and/or holders of addresses in the APNIC Whois Database, subject to any future global policy for the redistribution of addresses received by IANA from the RIRs.