diff_apnic-124-v001

 apnic-086-v011.txt   apnic-124-v001.txt 
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APNIC Document identity APNIC Document identity
Title: Policies for IPv4 address space management in the Asia Title: Policies for IPv4 address space management in the Asia
Pacific region Pacific region
Short title: add-manage-policy Short title: add-manage-policy
Document ref: APNIC-086 Document ref: APNIC-124
Version: 011 Version: 001
Date of original publication: 21 December 2001 Date of original publication: 9 May 2011
Date of this version: 8 November 2010 Date of this version: 9 May 2011
Review scheduled: n/a Review scheduled: n/a
Obsoletes: Previous versions Obsoletes: n/a
Status: obsolete Status: Obsolete
Comments: This document was superseded by Comments: n/a
apnic-124-v001 and apnic-125-v001
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Policies for IPv4 address space management in the Asia Pacific region Table of contents
—————–
About this document
This document represents current APNIC practices and policies for IPv4
address space.
This document should be read in conjunction with other APNIC documents,
including those dealing with membership and fees.
Table of contents
Part 1: Background, definitions, goals, and environment
1. Introduction
2. Scope
3. Hierarchy of IPv4 address space distribution
4. Definitions
4.1 Internet Registry (IR)
4.1.1 Regional Internet Registry (RIR)
4.1.2 National Internet Registry (NIR)
4.1.3 Local Internet Registry (LIR)
4.2 Internet Exchange Point
4.3 Address space
4.4 Allocated and Assigned address space
4.4.1 Allocated
4.4.2 Assigned
4.5 Current resources
4.6 Historical resources
5. Goals of address space management
5.1 Goals
5.1.1 Uniqueness
5.1.2 Registration
5.1.3 Aggregation
5.1.4 Conservation
5.1.5 Fairness
5.2 Conflict of goals
6. Policy environment
6.1 Routability
6.2 Internet growth rates
6.3 Collective responsibility
6.4 Impartiality
6.5 Varying levels of expertise
6.6 Address ownership
6.7 Address stockpiling
6.8 Evaluations to be based on best practice
6.9 Private address space
6.10 Minimum practical allocations
6.11 Documentation
6.12 Confidentiality
Part 2: Policies for address space management
7. General policy framework
7.1 IRs to adopt consistent address space management
policies
8 Address requests
8.1 Processing of requests dependent on correct
documentation
8.2 Security and confidentiality
8.3 Equitable processing of requests
8.4 General requirements for allocation requests
8.5 Organizations seeking address space from multiple IRs
9. Address allocation
9.1 Address space license
9.2 Slow start mechanism
9.2.1 Exceptions to slow start
9.3 Criteria for initial allocation
9.4 Criteria for subsequent allocations
9.4.1 No guarantee of contiguous allocations
9.5 Prior allocations to be used first
9.5.1 Special circumstances – large assignments
9.6 Reservations not supported
9.7 Address aggregation
9.8 Validity of allocations and assignments
9.9 Transfer of address space
9.10 Distribution of the final /8 worth of space in the
unallocated APNIC IPv4 address pool
9.10.1 Allocations to LIRs
9.10.2 Allocations for future uses
9.10.3 Transfers of IPv4 between APNIC account holders
10. LIR address space management
10.1 Assignment window for LIRs
10.2 Assignment usage estimates
10.3 Sub-allocations by LIRs
10.3.1 Effect of sub-allocations on LIR‘s usage rate
10.4 Registration requirements
10.4.1 Updating registration details
10.4.2 Registering contact persons
10.5 Responsibility to maintain in-addr.arpa records
11. Assignments and exchanges
11.1 Small multihoming assignments
11.2 Internet Exchange Points
11.3 Critical infrastructure
12. Closure of LIRs
13. Request evaluation guidelines
Part 1: Background, definitions, goals, and environment
_______________________________________________________________________
1. Introduction
APNIC (the Asia Pacific Network Information Centre) is the Regional
Internet Registry for the Asia Pacific region, responsible for
distributing public Internet address space and related resources in the
region and for coordinating the development and implementation of
policies to manage those resources.
The policies described in this document have been developed by the
Internet community of the Asia Pacific region through a consensus
process facilitated by APNIC. They are to be implemented by APNIC and
by the National Internet Registries and the Local Internet Registries
throughout the region.
2. Scope
This document describes policies for the responsible management of
global IPv4 public address space in the Asia Pacific region.
Specifically, this document focuses on the goals, assumptions, and
policies relating to the allocation and assignment of IPv4 address
space.
This document does not describe specific addressing policies related to
IPv6, Multicast, Private Address Space, or Autonomous System numbers.
It should be read in conjunction with other APNIC documents, including
those dealing with membership and fees.
3. Hierarchy of IPv4 address space distribution
IPv4 addresses are distributed in accordance with the hierarchical
structure described in RFC2050, represented simply in fig.1.
[Figure 1: Diagram of distribution hierarchy]
+——–+
| IANA |
+——–+
|
+———–+———–+———–+———–+
| | | | |
+——–+ +——–+ +——–+ +——–+ +——–+
| ARIN | |RIPE NCC| | APNIC | | LACNIC | | AfriNIC|
+——–+ +——–+ +——–+ +——–+ +——–+
|
+————–+————-+
| |
+——+ |
| NIR | | National Internet
+——+ | Registries
| |
+——+–+——+ |
| | | | Local Internet
+——+ | | +——+ Registries
| LIR | | | | LIR |
+——+ | | +——+
| | | |
+—–+ | | +—–+—–+
| | | | | |
+——+ | +——+ | +——+ | Internet Service
| ISP | | | ISP | | | ISP | | Providers
+——+ | +——+ | +——+ |
| | | | | |
+—-+ +—-+ +—-+ +—-+ +—-+ +—-+ End-users
| EU | | EU | | EU | | EU | | EU | | EU |
+—-+ +—-+ +—-+ +—-+ +—-+ +—-+
In this hierarchy, IANA allocates address space to APNIC,to be
redistributed throughout the Asia Pacific region. APNIC allocates
address space to Internet Registries (IRs) and also delegates to them
the authority to make assignments and allocations. In some cases APNIC
assigns address space to end users. National and Local IRs allocate and
assign address space to their members and customers under the guidance
of APNIC and in accordance with the policies and procedures described
in this document.
4. Definitions
The following terms and definitions are used in this document.
4.1 Internet Registry (IR)
An Internet Registry (IR) is an organization that is
responsible for distributing IP address space to its members or
customers and for registering those distributions. IRs are
classified according to their primary function and territorial
scope within the hierarchical structure depicted in fig.1
above.
IRs include:
* APNIC and other Regional Internet Registries (RIRs)
* National Internet Registries (NIRs)
* Local Internet Registries (LIRs), unless the specific context
of the reference requires otherwise.
4.1.1 Regional Internet Registry (RIR)
Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) are established under the
authority of IANA to serve and represent large geographical
regions. Their primary role is to manage, distribute, and
register public Internet address space within their respective
regions. Currently, there are four RIRs: APNIC, RIPE NCC,
LACNIC, and ARIN, although a small number of additional RIRs
may be established in the future.
4.1.2 National Internet Registry (NIR)
A National Internet Registry (NIR) primarily allocates address
space to its members or constituents, which are generally LIRs
organized at a national level. NIRs are expected to apply
their policies and procedures fairly and equitably to all
members of their constituency.
The policies in this document apply to NIRs; however, this
document does not describe the entire roles and
responsibilities of NIRs with respect to their formal
relationship with APNIC. Such roles and responsibilities may
be described in other documents and agreements, subject to
APNIC Document review procedures.
4.1.3 Local Internet Registry (LIR)
A Local Internet Registry (LIR) is generally an Internet
Service Provider (ISP), and may assign address space to its
own network infrastructure and to users of its network
services. LIR customers may be other “downstream” ISPs, which
further assign address space to their own customers.
4.2 Internet Exchange Point
An Internet Exchange Point (IX or IXP) is a layer 1 and layer 2
network structure that interconnects three or more Autonomous
Systems (AS) for the purpose of Internet traffic interchange.
4.3 Address space
In this document, address space means public IPv4 address
ranges, excluding multicast addresses and private addresses
defined by RFC1918.
4.4 Allocated and Assigned address space
For the purposes of understanding APNIC address space policies,
it is important to make a clear distinction between the terms
“allocated” and “assigned”.
4.4.1 Allocated
Allocated address space is address space that is distributed to
IRs or other organizations for the purpose of subsequent
distribution by them.
4.4.2 Assigned
Assigned address space is address space that is delegated to an
ISP or end-user, for specific use within the Internet
infrastructure they operate. Assignments must only be made for
specific, documented purposes and may not be sub-assigned.
4.5 Current resources
Current resources are Internet resources registered by APNIC
under explicit policies and agreements. Resources include
public IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, Autonomous System numbers, and
reverse DNS delegations.
4.6 Historical resources
Historical resources are Internet resources registered under
early registry policies without formal agreements and include:
* Registrations transferred to APNIC as part of the AUNIC to
APNIC migration
* Registrations transferred as part of the Early Registration
Transfer (ERX) project
* Historical APNIC resources.
For more information on historical resources, see:
* Policies for historical Internet resources in the APNIC Whois
Database
http://www.apnic.net/policies/historical-resource-policies
5. Goals of address space management
5.1 Goals
The goals described here were formulated by the Internet
community and reflect the mutual interest of all members of
that community in ensuring that the Internet is able to
function and grow to the maximum extent possible.
It is APNIC’s primary duty, as a custodian of a public
resource, to ensure that these goals are met within the Asia
Pacific region. APNIC does this by providing guidance and
leadership in developing and implementing responsible policies
and practices.
It is the responsibility of every NIR and LIR to also ensure
that these goals are met within their respective regions and
communities.
5.1.1 Uniqueness
Every assignment and allocation of address space must be
guaranteed as globally unique. This is an absolute requirement
for ensuring that every public host on the Internet can be
uniquely identified.
5.1.2 Registration
All assignments and allocations made directly by APNIC to its
members and customers must be registered in a publicly
accessible database. This is necessary to ensure uniqueness and
to provide information for Internet troubleshooting at all
levels. It also reflects the expectation of the Internet
community that custodians of these public resources should be
identifiable. Organizations that receive an allocation from
APNIC can choose whether or not their customer assignment
registrations should be publicly available. If the organization
does not indicate a choice, or it chooses to hide its customer
assignment registrations, then those records will not be
visible in the public whois database. Whois queries on these
records will return details of the allocation.
5.1.3 Aggregation
Wherever possible, address space should be distributed in a
hierarchical manner, according to the topology of network
infrastructure. This is necessary to permit the aggregation of
routing information by ISPs, and to limit the expansion of
Internet routing tables.
5.1.4 Conservation
To maximize the lifetime of the available resource, address
space must be distributed according to actual need and for
immediate use. Stockpiling address space and maintaining
reservations are contrary to this goal. Conservation also
implies efficiency. Therefore, all users of address space
should adopt techniques such as Variable Length Subnet Masking
(VLSM) and appropriate technologies that ensure the address
space is not used wastefully.
5.1.5 Fairness
All policies and practices relating to the use of address space
should apply fairly and equitably to all existing and potential
members of the Internet community, regardless of their
location, nationality, size, or any other factor.
5.2 Conflict of goals
The goals of conservation and aggregation often conflict with
each other. Also, some or all of the goals may occasionally
conflict with the interests of individual IRs or end-users.
Therefore, IRs evaluating requests for address space must
carefully analyse all relevant considerations and try to
balance the needs of the requestor with the needs of the
Internet community as a whole.
This document is intended to help IRs perform their role in
consistent and equitable ways. IRs must maintain full
documentation of and transparency within the decision making
process.
6. Policy environment
Apart from the goals described in Section 5, other factors influence
the APNIC policy environment. These other factors include the
expectations of the Internet community, current administrative
structures, and technological constraints.
The policy environment may change quickly or in unpredictable ways, so
APNIC, on behalf of its members, must monitor any changes and
communicate any policy implications.
This Section describes the factors in the current operating environment
that have been most important in determining current APNIC policies.
6.1 Routability
The routability of address space throughout the Internet can
never be guaranteed by any single organization. To reduce the
number of globally advertised routes, ISPs may implement route
filtering policies based on prefix length. As a result, small
portable assignments are the most likely to suffer routability
problems. Therefore, APNIC policies encourage those seeking
address space to request from upstream providers rather than
from APNIC directly.
6.2 Internet growth rates
Early strategies for distributing address space did not
anticipate the rapid growth of the Internet and the scaling
problems that followed, affecting both the amount of address
space available and routing. Therefore, APNIC policies take
account of past experience and seek to manage address space in
a way that will maximize future scaling of the Internet.
6.3 Collective responsibility
APNIC shares with its members and their customers a collective
responsibility to ensure manageable and scalable Internet
growth and to make decisions consistent with the goals
described in Section 5. Therefore, APNIC policies and
procedures are developed by APNIC members and the broader
Internet community as a whole, in the common interest of those
communities. In implementing policies, APNIC and its members
rely on an implicit trust that delegated responsibilities are
carried out in good faith. Specifically, APNIC must trust that
the information gathered from members during the request
process is genuine and accurate.
6.4 Impartiality
APNIC represents the interests of the Internet community in
general and the Internet community of the Asia Pacific region
in particular. Therefore, APNIC must apply its policies fairly
and equitably, without regard to an organization’s size,
geographic location, or any other factor.
6.5 Varying levels of expertise
Different IRs and end users have varying levels of experience
and expertise. APNIC policies allow for varying levels of
assistance and monitoring, appropriate to ensure a consistent
approach to address space management throughout the AP Internet
community.
6.6 Address ownership
The Internet community regards address space as a scarce,
public resource that should only be distributed according to
demonstrated need. ISPs and other organizations and individuals
that use address space are considered “custodians” rather than
“owners” of the resource. As address space becomes more scarce,
address space management policies may be adjusted by the
community.
6.7 Address stockpiling
Stockpiling addresses is harmful to the goals of conservation
and fairness. APNIC policies must prevent stockpiling and
ensure efficient deployment of address space on the basis of
immediate demonstrated need.
6.8 Evaluations to be based on best practice
APNIC should ensure that address space holders adopt current
best practice in management of the resources they use. If
appropriate technologies exist for improved management of
address space in particular situations, the community expects
that those technologies should be used. APNIC consults with its
members and the broader Internet community to define and
develop current best practice recommendations relating to
Internet addressing technologies and techniques.
6.9 Private address space
The use of private address space may be appropriate for
addressing networks that are connected to the Internet via a
firewall, and where there are not technical requirements for
the use of public address space. In general, private address
space should be used for networks not connected to the Internet.
6.10 Minimum practical allocations
Because the goals of aggregation and conservation conflict, it
is necessary to apply a minimum practical size for address
space allocations. This minimum allocation size may be reviewed
from time to time, as technologies and administrative
conditions evolve. The current minimum practical allocation is
a /22 (1024 addresses).
6.11 Documentation
To properly evaluate requests, IRs must carefully examine all
relevant documentation relating to the networks in question.
This documentation may include:
* network engineering plans
* subnetting plans
* descriptions of network topology
* descriptions of network routing plans
* equipment invoices and purchase orders
* other relevant documents.
All documentation should conform to a consistent standard and
any estimates and predictions that are documented must be
realistic and justifiable.
6.12 Confidentiality
The documentation which supports address space requests
involves information that may be highly confidential to the
organizations and individuals involved. Therefore, APNIC will
operate in ways that reflect the trust implicit in its position
by applying and enforcing procedures that protect the
confidential information of its members and their customers.
Part 2: Policies for address space management
_______________________________________________________________________
7. General policy framework
7.1 IRs to adopt consistent address space management policies
All NIRs and LIRs that receive address space from APNIC (either
directly or indirectly) must adopt allocation and assignment
policies that are consistent with the policies described in
this document.
NIRs and LIRs must ensure that address space for which they are
responsible is only allocated or assigned subject to agreements
consistent with the license provisions of section 9.1.
Also, NIRs must, wherever possible, apply slow start,
assignment window, and second opinion policies to their own
members in a manner consistent with the way APNIC applies such
policies.
8 Address requests
8.1 Processing of requests dependent on correct documentation
APNIC will only process requests that have been completely and
properly documented. If the documentation contains errors or
omissions, APNIC will advise the applicant as soon as possible.
APNIC may also request the applicant to provide further
information or clarify relevant issues that are not clear in
the initial request.
APNIC will process the request as soon as the errors and
omissions have been rectified or the additional questions have
been answered.
APNIC will make all reasonable efforts to maintain a consistent
and reliable level of service with respect to processing of
requests.
8.2 Security and confidentiality
APNIC will maintain systems and practices that protect the
confidentiality of all information relating to the commercial
and infrastructure operations of all members and their
customers. APNIC will ensure that the employment of all of its
staff or agents is based upon an explicit condition of
confidentiality regarding such information.
APNIC provides for authorisation and verification mechanisms
within the APNIC Whois Database. It is the responsibility of
each IR or end-user to apply these mechanisms.
8.3 Equitable processing of requests
APNIC will deal with all requests strictly in the order in
which it receives the proper documentation. To provide fair
treatment for all applicants, APNIC will not in any
circumstance provide for special treatment or make exceptions
to the standard order of request processing.
APNIC will seek to process all requests within a consistent
time and will maintain a request tracking system for efficient
request management.
8.4 General requirements for allocation requests
All requests for address space must be supported by
documentation describing:
* the network infrastructure of the organization making the
request;
* any address space currently held by that organization
(including historical address space);
* previous assignments made by that organization (including
assignments made from historical address allocations); and
* the intended use for the address space requested.
In addition to this general requirement, more specific
documentation may also be requested (see Sections 9.2, 9.3, and
9.4).
8.5 Organizations seeking address space from multiple IRs
Organizations must obtain their address space from only one IR
at a time. Organizations requesting address space from any IR
must declare all the address space they currently hold,
regardless of the source. organizations making concurrent
requests to more than one IR must declare the details of all of
those requests.
In certain circumstances (for example, where an organization is
multihomed), strong technical reasons may justify an
organization receiving address space from more than one source.
For the purposes of this section, a parent organization and its
subsidiaries are considered to be a single organization.
Exceptions may arise in cases where the parts of the
organization:
* are separate legal entities;
* maintain fully independent network infrastructures and are
routed under different Autonomous System numbers; or
* or can otherwise demonstrate a justified need to obtain
address space from more than one IR.
9. Address allocation
9.1 Address space license
APNIC will allocate and assign Internet resources on a
‘license’ basis, with such licenses to be of specific limited
duration (normally one year).
The conditions of all licenses are described in the APNIC
membership agreements, service agreements, and other relevant
APNIC documents.
Licenses to organizations shall be renewable on the following
conditions:
* the original basis of the allocation or assignment remains
valid; and
* that address space is properly registered at the time of
renewal.
When a license is renewed, the new license will be subject to
address space policies and license conditions effective at the
time of renewal, provided that a minimum notice period of one
year is given of any substantial changes to the conditions of
the current license.
All substantial changes to license conditions are subject to
the consensus of APNIC members, in accordance with the APNIC
Document Review Policies and Procedures.
Individual licenses shall only be subject to review if the
relevant IR has reason to believe that the existing license
terms are no longer being complied with. IRs may implement
their own procedures for the review of existing licenses as
they see fit.
9.2 Slow start mechanism
Subject to Section 9.2.1, APNIC and NIRs apply a slow start
mechanism to all new LIRs. The slow start is applied to prevent
allocations of large blocks of address space that may then
remain substantially unassigned.
The initial allocation an LIR receives from APNIC will be the
size of the minimum practical allocation described in Section
6.10.
9.2.1 Exceptions to slow start
In exceptional circumstances, an LIR may receive a greater
initial allocation if it can demonstrate that its immediate
need for address space exceeds the standard slow start
allocation.
The documentation required to justify an exception to the slow
start may include (but is not limited to):
* receipts for purchase of equipment,
* purchase orders, or
* signed project contracts indicating the immediate network
requirements to be met by the LIR.
9.3 Criteria for initial allocation
To be eligible to obtain an initial allocation, an LIR must:
* have used a /24 from their upstream provider or demonstrate
an immediate need for a /24;
* have complied with applicable policies in managing all
address space previously allocated to it (including
historical allocations);
* demonstrate a detailed plan for use of a /23 within a year;
and
* commit to renumber from previously deployed space into the
new address space within one year.
9.4 Criteria for subsequent allocations
After the initial allocation to an LIR, all subsequent
allocations will depend on the following:
* the LIR‘s verified usage rate (which is the rate at which the
LIR made assignments and sub-allocations from relevant past
allocations, including historical allocations)
* their documented plans for address space; and
* their degree of compliance with APNIC policies with respect
to relevant past allocations.
Based on these factors, APNIC and NIRs will allocate enough
address space to meet the LIR‘s estimated needs for a period up
to one year. If APNIC or the NIR make an allocation based on a
period of less than one year, then they must inform the LIR of
the length of the period and the reasons for selecting it.
9.4.1 No guarantee of contiguous allocations
APNIC will attempt to make subsequent allocations contiguous
with previous allocations, but cannot guarantee that this will
be possible.
9.5 Prior allocations to be used first
An LIR is not eligible to receive subsequent allocations until
its current assignments account for at least eighty percent of
the total address space from all allocations it holds. This is
referred to as the “eighty percent rule”.
9.5.1 Special circumstances – large assignments
An LIR may request an exception to the eighty percent rule if
it needs to make a single assignment that is larger than the
amount of space remaining.
9.6 Reservations not supported
When an LIR wants to assign address space for customers, it
must make the assignments from any address space it currently
holds.
When evaluating allocation requests, reserved address space is
considered to be unassigned.
9.7 Address aggregation
It is a condition of all allocations, that the allocated
address space is aggregated by the LIR within a minimum number
of route announcements (preferably one).
LIRs must only assign or sub-allocate addresses to customers 1. Introduction
who will be using those addresses in relation to network
connectivity services provided by the LIR.
LIRs are expected to enter into agreements with their customers 2. Scope
specifying that the end-user will hold the addresses only for
so long as the end-user remains a customer of that LIR. Such
agreements should also be consistent with the license under
which the address space is being used by the LIR.
9.8 Validity of allocations and assignments 3. Delegations from the APNIC IPv4 address pool
3.1. Criteria for initial LIR delegation
3.2. Criteria for subsequent LIR delegations
3.2.1. Prior delegations to be used first
3.2.2. Special circumstances – large delegations
3.3. Criteria for small multihoming delegations
3.4. Criteria for Internet Exchange Points
3.5. Criteria for Critical infrastructure
An allocation or assignment of address space is valid only 4. LIR address space management
while the original criteria on which the allocation or 4.1. Assignment window for LIRs
assignment was based continue to be valid. 4.2. Address usage estimates
4.3. Delegations to downstream IRs
4.3.1. Effect of delegation to downstream IRs on upstream LIR‘s
usage rate
4.4. Registration requirements
4.4.1. Updating registration details
4.4.2. Registering contact persons
4.5. Responsibility to maintain in-addr.arpa records
An allocation or assignment becomes invalid if it is: 5. Transfer of address space
* made for a specific purpose that no longer exists; or 6. How APNIC manages address space
* based on information that is later found to be false or 6.1. Reservation for future uses
incomplete. 6.2. IPv4 addresses returned to APNIC
If an allocation or assignment shall become invalid then the 1. Introduction
address space must be returned to the appropriate IR. ——————
APNIC (the Asia Pacific Network Information Centre) is the
Regional Internet Registry (RIR) for the Asia Pacific region,
responsible for distributing public Internet address space and
related resources in the region and for coordinating the
development and implementation of policies to manage those
resources.
9.9 Transfer of address space The policies described in this document have been developed by
the Internet community of the Asia Pacific region through a
consensus process facilitated by APNIC. They are to be
implemented by APNIC and by the National Internet Registries
(NIRs) and the Local Internet Registries (LIRs) throughout the
region.
Subject to the more specific provisions of the APNIC transfer, 2. Scope
merger, acquisition and takeover policies document APNIC does ———–
not recognize the sale or unauthorised transfer of address
space and will consider all such transfers to be invalid. APNIC
will require organizations holding such transfers to return
them to the appropriate IR.
For more information on this policy, see APNIC transfer, This document describes policies for the responsible management
merger, acquisition and takeover policies: of global IPv4 public address space in the Asia Pacific region.
Specifically, this document focuses on policies relating to the
delegation of IPv4 address space.
http://www.apnic.net/policy/transfer-policy This document does not describe specific addressing policies
related to IPv6, Multicast, Private Address Space, or Autonomous
System numbers. It should be read in conjunction with other
APNIC documents, including those dealing with membership and
fees.
9.10 Distribution of the final /8 worth of space in the This document does not provide specific details of request
unallocated APNIC IPv4 address pool evaluation by APNIC, or of expectations relating to specific
technologies. Such details are dependent on technological
advances, and may change frequently. Therefore, to assist
organizations to request address space, APNIC will publish
separate guidelines documents relating to specific technologies
or techniques as required.
When the total remaining space in the unallocated APNIC address This document does not provide specific details on how networks
pool reaches a threshold of a total of one /8, the following can use Private address space. The use of private address space
policies will come into force. may be appropriate for addressing networks that are connected to
the Internet via a firewall, and where there are not technical
requirements for the use of public address space. In general,
private address space should be used for networks not connected
to the Internet.
9.10.1 Allocations to LIRs This document must also be read in conjunction with the “Policy
environment for Internet number resource distribution in the
Asia Pacific”, which outlines the structure and principals of
Internet number resource distribution in the Asia Pacific
region, the goals of address management, and definitions of
terms used in this document. The document can be found at:
Each APNIC account holder will be eligible to request and http://www.apnic.net/policy/policy-environment
receive a single allocation from the remaining /8 worth of
space, with the following conditions:
1. Each allocation will consist of the minimum IPv4 allocation 3. Delegations from the APNIC IPv4 address pool
size ————————————————–
2. The account holder must meet the criteria for receiving an
IPv4 allocation specified in one of the following sections
of this policy document:
9.3 Criteria for initial allocation The current minimum delegation size is a /24 (256 addresses).
9.4 Criteria for subsequent allocations
All APNIC account holders are eligible to receive only one As of Friday, 15 April 2011, each new or existing APNIC account
allocation from the final /8 worth of address space. This holder is only eligible to request and receive delegations
applies to both current and future account holders. totalling a maximum /22 worth of address space from the APNIC
IPv4 address pool.
9.10.2 Allocations for future uses To receive a delegation they must meet the criteria specified in
one of the following sections of this policy document:
A /16 will be held in reserve for future uses, as yet 3.1 Criteria for initial LIR delegation
unforeseen. 3.2 Criteria for subsequent LIR delegations
3.3 Criteria for small multihoming delegations
3.4 Criteria for Internet Exchange Points
3.5 Criteria for critical infrastructure
If the reserved /16 remains unused by the time the rest of the 3.1. Criteria for initial LIR delegation
remaining /8 worth of space has been allocated, the /16 will be
returned to the APNIC pool for distribution under the policy
described in Section 9.10.1, “Allocations to LIRs”.
9.10.3 Transfers of IPv4 between APNIC account holders To be eligible, an LIR must:
For more information on this policy, see section 3 of APNIC – Have used a /24 from their upstream provider or
transfer, merger, acquisition and takeover policies: demonstrate an immediate need for a /24,
– Have complied with applicable policies in managing all
address space previously delegated to it (including
historical delegations), and
– Demonstrate a detailed plan for use of a /23 within a
year
http://www.apnic.net/policy/transfer-policy 3.2. Criteria for subsequent LIR delegations
10. LIR address space management After receiving an initial LIR delegation, all
subsequent delegations will depend on the following:
Subject to the following provisions, LIRs may either sub-allocate or – The LIR‘s verified usage rate (which is the rate at
assign address space to their customers. which the LIR made delegations from relevant past
address space, including historical delegations)
– Their documented plans for address space, and
– Their degree of compliance with APNIC policies with
respect to relevant past delegations.
10.1 Assignment window for LIRs Based on these factors, APNIC and NIRs will delegate
address space to meet the LIR‘s estimated needs for a
period up to one year up to the maximum allowed
delegation under Section 3. If APNIC or the NIR make a
delegation based on a period of less than one year, then
they must inform the LIR of the length of the period and
the reasons for selecting it.
APNIC and NIRs shall apply an assignment window mechanism to 3.2.1. Prior delegations to be used first
help LIRs understand and comply with APNIC policies and the An LIR is not eligible to receive subsequent
address management goals. delegations until its current delegations
account for at least eighty percent of the
total address space it holds. This is referred
to as the “eighty percent rule”.
The assignment window indicates the maximum number of addresses 3.2.2. Special circumstances – large delegations
that an LIR may assign or sub-allocate to an end-user without An LIR may request an exception to the eighty
first seeking a ‘second opinion’. If an LIR wishes to make an percent rule if it needs to make a single
assignment or sub-allocation that exceeds its assignment delegation that is larger than the amount of
window, the LIR must first submit a second opinion request. space it has remaining.
LIRs start with an assignment window of zero, meaning all 3.3. Criteria for small multihoming delegations
proposed assignments and sub-allocations must first be
approved.
APNIC or the relevant NIR will regularly assess the proficiency An organization is eligible if it is currently
of LIR staff in making assignments and sub-allocations and multihomed with provider-based addresses, or
seeking second opinions, and will review the size of the demonstrates a plan to multihome within one month.
assignment window accordingly. As the LIR staff become more
proficient, the size of their assignment window may be raised.
The maximum assignment window given to any LIR will be a /19 Organizations requesting a delegation under these terms
(8,192 addresses). must demonstrate that they are able to use 25% of the
requested addresses immediately and 50% within one year.
If an LIR‘s staff appears to become less proficient (for 3.4. Criteria for Internet Exchange Points
example, due to the training of new staff or other relevant
circumstances) then that LIR‘s assignment window may be
temporarily reduced.
In addition, it is mandatory to register an Incident Report Team Internet Exchange Points (IXP) are eligible to receive a
(IRT) object for each allocation and assignment record in the APNIC delegation from APNIC to be used exclusively to connect
Whois Database. the IXP participant devices to the Exchange Point.
10.2 Assignment usage estimates Global routability of the delegation is left to the
discretion of the IXP and its participants.
Requests for assignments must be supported by usage estimates 3.5. Criteria for Critical infrastructure
based on immediate and projected future need. These requests
must be accompanied by documentation that supports the
estimates.
The estimates should made for the following periods: The following critical infrastructure networks, if
operating in the Asia Pacific region, are eligible to
receive a delegation:
* immediately; – Root domain name system (DNS) server
* within one year; and – Global top level domain (gTLD) nameservers
* within two years. – Country code TLD (ccTLDs) nameservers
IANA
– Regional Internet Registry (RIRs), and
– National Internet Registry (NIRs)
APNIC recommends that, as a general guideline, organizations Delegations to critical infrastructure are available
should base their assignment requests on the assumption that 25 only to the actual operators of the network
percent of the address space will be used immediately and 50 infrastructure performing such functions. Registrar
percent used within one year. organizations that do not actually host the network
housing the registry infrastructure will not be eligible
under this policy.
The end-user must provide documentation that supports its one Exchanges made under this policy remain subject to the
year usage estimate. If it is not possible for the end-user to address space license policy. See “Policy environment
estimate confidently what the two year usage rate will be, then for Internet number resource distribution in the Asia
APNIC or the NIR may make an allocation that will be sufficient Pacific”.
for the one year needs only.
10.3 Sub-allocations by LIRs http//:www.apnic.net/policy/policy-environment
LIRs may sub-allocate address space to their downstream 4. LIR address space management
customers which are operating networks, such as ISPs, subject ———————————-
to the following conditions:
* Sub-allocations are non-portable and must be returned to the LIRs may delegate address space to their customers subject to
LIR if the downstream customer ceases to receive connectivity the following provisions.
from the LIR.
* Sub-allocations are subject to the LIR‘s assignment window.
Requests for sub-allocations which exceed the LIR‘s
assignment window must first be referred to APNIC for second
opinion approval.
* The downstream customer which receives a sub-allocation from
an LIR is not permitted to further sub-allocate the address
space.
10.3.1 Effect of sub-allocations on LIR‘s usage rate 4.1. Assignment window for LIRs
For the purposes of evaluating the LIR‘s usage rate (see APNIC and NIRs shall apply an assignment window
sections 9.4 and 9.5), sub-allocated address space will be mechanism to help LIRs understand and comply with APNIC
considered as “used”. However, APNIC will give careful policies and the address management goals.
consideration to the registration of assignments within the
allocations, and may request supporting documentation as
necessary.
10.4 Registration requirements The assignment window indicates the maximum number of
addresses an LIR may delegate to an end-user without
first seeking a “second opinion”. If an LIR wishes to
make an delegation that exceeds its delegation window,
the LIR must first submit a second opinion request.
IRs are responsible for promptly and accurately registering LIRs start with a delegation window of zero, meaning all
their allocations, sub-allocations, and assignments with APNIC proposed delegations must first be approved.
as follows:
* All allocations and sub-allocations must be registered. APNIC, or the relevant NIR, will regularly assess the
* Assignments for networks greater than /30 must be registered. proficiency of LIR staff in making delegations and
* Assignments for networks of /30 or less may be registered, at seeking second opinions and will review the size of the
the discretion of the IR and the network administrator. assignment window accordingly. As the LIR staff become
* Assignments to hosts may be registered, at the discretion of more proficient, the size of their assignment window may
the IR and the end-user. be raised.
IRs can choose whether or not to designate this information The maximum assignment window given to any LIR will be a
‘public’. Customer registration details that are not designated /19 (8,192 addresses).
‘public’ will not be generally available via the APNIC Whois
Database. The database record will instead direct specific
whois enquiries to the IR concerned.
10.4.1 Updating registration details If an LIR‘s staff appears to become less proficient (for
example, due to the training of new staff or other
relevant circumstances) then that LIR‘s assignment
window may be temporarily reduced.
IRs must update their registration records when any of the 4.2. Address usage estimates
registration information changes. This is the responsibility of
the IR concerned, but may be formally delegated to the end-user
as a condition of the original assignment.
10.4.2 Registering contact persons Requests for delegations must be supported by usage
estimates based on immediate and projected future need.
These requests must be accompanied by documentation that
supports the estimates.
Administrative and technical contact persons must be The estimates should be made for the following periods:
registered.
The registered administrative contact (‘admin-c’) must be – Immediately,
someone who is physically located at the site of the network, – Within one year, and
subject to the following exceptions: – Within two years
* For residential networks or users, the IR‘s technical contact APNIC recommends that, as a general guideline,
may be registered as admin-c. organizations should base their resource requests on the
* For networks in exceptional circumstances that make it assumption that 25% of the address space will be used
impractical to maintain an on-site administrative contact, an immediately and 50% will be used within one year.
off-site person may be registered as the admin-c
The technical contact (‘tech-c’) need not be physically located The end-user must provide documentation that supports
at the site of the network, but must be a person who is its one-year usage estimate. If it is not possible for
responsible for the day-to-day operation of the network. the end-user to estimate confidently what the two-year
usage rate will be, then APNIC or the NIR may make a
delegation that will be sufficient for the one-year
needs only.
10.5 Responsibility to maintain in-addr.arpa records 4.3. Delegations to downstream IRs
LIRs should maintain in-addr.arpa resource records for their LIRs may delegate address space to their downstream
customers’ networks. If a network is not specifically customers, which are operating networks, such as ISPs,
associated with an LIR then the in-addra.arpa records should be subject to the following conditions:
maintained by either the appropriate NIR or APNIC.
11. Assignments and exchanges – Delegations are non-portable and must be returned to
the LIR if the downstream customer ceases to receive
connectivity from the LIR.
– Delegations are subject to the LIR‘s assignment
window. Requests for delegations, which exceed the
LIR‘s assignment window, must first be referred to
APNIC for second opinion approval.
– The downstream customer is not permitted to further
delegate the address space.
11.1 Small multihoming assignments 4.3.1. Effect of delegation to downstream IRs on
upstream LIR‘s usage rate
An organization is eligible to receive a portable assignment For the purposes of evaluating the LIR‘s usage
from APNIC if it: rate (see section 3.2), address space
delegated to downstream LIRs will be
considered as “used”. However, APNIC will give
careful consideration to the registration of
delegations made by the downstream LIR to
their customers and may request supporting
documentation as necessary.
* is currently multihomed with provider-based addresses, or 4.4. Registration requirements
demonstrates a plan to multihome within one month; and
* agrees to renumber out of previously assigned address space.
An organization is considered to be multihomed if its network Internet Registries (IRs) are responsible for promptly
receives full-time connectivity from more than one ISP and has and accurately registering their address space use with
one or more routing prefixes announced by at least two of its APNIC as follows:
ISPs.
Organizations requesting a portable assignment under these – All delegations from APNIC to the IR must be
terms must demonstrate that they are able to use 25 percent of registered.
the requested assignment immediately and 50 percent within one – All delegations to downstream IRs must be registered.
year. – Delegations made to networks greater than a /30 must
be registered.
– Delegations made to networks of a /30 or less may be
registered, at the discretion of the IR and the
network administrator.
– Delegations to hosts may be registered, at the
discretion of the IR and the end-user.
There is no minimum assignment size for portable assignments IRs can choose whether or not to designate this
made under these terms. information “public”. Customer registration details that
are not designated “public” will not be generally
available via the APNIC Whois Database. The database
record will instead direct specific whois enquiries to
the IR concerned.
11.2 Internet Exchange Points In addition, it is mandatory to register an Incident
Report Team (IRT) object for each address block record
in the APNIC Whois Database.
Internet Exchange Points are eligible to receive a portable 4.4.1. Updating registration details
assignment from APNIC to be used exclusively to connect the IXP
participant devices to the Exchange Point.
The minimum assignment made under these terms is /24. IRs must update their registration records
when any of the registration information
changes. This is the responsibility of the IR
concerned. However, this responsibility may be
formally assigned to the end-user as a
condition of the original delegation.
Global routability of the portable assignment is left to the 4.4.2. Registering contact persons
discretion of the IXP and its participants.
11.3 Critical infrastructure Administrative and technical contact persons
must be registered.
The following critical infrastructure networks, if operating in The registered administrative contact (“admin-
the Asia Pacific region, are eligible to receive a portable c”) must be someone who is physically located
assignment: at the site of the network, subject to the
following exceptions:
* root domain name system (DNS) server; – For residential networks or users, the IR‘s
* global top level domain (gTLD) nameservers; technical contact may be registered as the
* country code TLD (ccTLDs) nameservers; admin-c.
* IANA; – For networks in exceptional circumstances
* Regional Internet Registry (RIRs); and that make it impractical to maintain an on-
* National Internet Registry (NIRs). site administrative contact, an off-site
person may be registered as the admin-c.
Assignments to critical infrastructure are available only to The technical contact (“tech-c”) need not be
the actual operators of the network infrastructure performing physically located at the site of the network,
such functions. Registrar organizations which do not actually but must be a person who is responsible for
host the network housing the registry infrastructure, will not the day-to-day operation of the network.
be eligible for an assignment under this policy.
The minimum assignment made under these terms is /24. 4.5. Responsibility to maintain in-addr.arpa records
Exchanges made under this policy remain subject to the address LIRs should maintain in-addr.arpa resource records for
space license policy. their customers’ networks. If a network is not
specifically associated with an LIR then the
in-addra.arpa records should be maintained by either the
appropriate NIR or APNIC.
12. Closure of LIRs 5. Transfer of address space
——————————-
If an LIR holding APNIC address space ceases to provide IPv4 addresses may be transferred in accordance with the “APNIC
Internet connectivity services, all of its address space must transfer, merger, acquisition, and takeover policy”. APNIC does
be returned to APNIC. It is the responsibility of the LIR (or not recognize transfers outside this policy and require
any liquidator or administrator appointed to wind up the organizations holding such transfers to return them to the
member’s business) to advise all of its customers that address appropriate IR. For more information on this policy, see the
space will be returned to APNIC, and that renumbering into new “APNIC transfer, merger, acquisition, and takeover policy”:
address space will be necessary.
In the case that a new LIR takes over the business or http://www.apnic.net/policy/transfer-policy
infrastructure of the closed LIR, the existing address space
may be transferred to the new LIR, however such a transfer is
subject to reexamination by APNIC and may be treated as a new
address request process.
For more on the transfer of resources, see APNIC transfer, 6. How APNIC manages address space
merger, acquisition and takeover policies: ————————————-
http://www.apnic.net/policy/transfer-policy 6.1. Reservation for future uses
13. Request evaluation guidelines A /16 will be held in reserve for future uses, as yet
unforeseen.
This document does not provide specific details of request If the reserved /16 remains unused by the time the
evaluation by APNIC, or of expectations relating to specific remaining available space has been delegated, the /16
technologies. Such details are dependent on technological will be returned to the APNIC pool for distribution
advances, and may change frequently. Therefore APNIC will under the policy described in Section 3, “Delegations
publish separate guidelines documents relating to specific from the APNIC IPv4 address pool”.
technologies or techniques as required.
Such guidelines may contain any of the following: 6.2. IPv4 addresses returned to APNIC
* descriptions of evaluation procedures to be used for certain Any IPv4 resources received by APNIC will be placed
types of address space requests into the APNIC IPv4 pool for delegation under the
* summaries of the best current practices that organizations policies described in Section 3, “Delegations from the
requesting address space will generally be expected to APNIC IPv4 address pool”. This placement applies to any
implement in their network plans; and IPv4 addresses APNIC receives from IANA and/or holders
* other information that may assist organizations to request of addresses in the APNIC Whois Database, subject to
address space. any future global policy for the redistribution of
addresses received by IANA from the RIRs.
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