aut-num

Object Template

The object template includes information on how to complete the attribute values.

               Status       Instance     Search Status


aut-num:       [mandatory]  [single]     [primary/lookup key]
as-name:       [mandatory]  [single]     [ ]
descr:         [mandatory]  [multiple]   [ ]
country:       [mandatory]  [single]     [ ]
member-of:     [optional]   [multiple]   [inverse key]
import:        [optional]   [multiple]   [ ]
export:        [optional]   [multiple]   [ ]
default:       [optional]   [multiple]   [ ]
remarks:       [optional]   [multiple]   [ ]
admin-c:       [mandatory]  [multiple]   [inverse key]
tech-c:        [mandatory]  [multiple]   [inverse key]
notify:        [optional]   [multiple]   [inverse key]
mnt-lower:     [optional]   [multiple]   [inverse key]
mnt-routes:    [optional]   [multiple]   [inverse key]
mnt-by:        [mandatory]  [multiple]   [inverse key]
mnt-irt:       [mandatory]  [multiple]   [inverse key]
changed:       [mandatory]  [multiple]   [ ]
source:        [mandatory]  [single]     [ ]

Example

aut-num:     AS1234
as-name:     AS-EXAMPLENET
descr:       ASN for Example net Pty Ltd
country:     AP
import:      AS2345
export:      AS2345
admin-c:     DE345-AP
tech-c:      DE345-AP
mnt-lower:   MAINT-EXAMPLENET-AP
mnt-routes:  MAINT-EXAMPLENET-AP
mnt-by:      MAINT-EXAMPLENET-AP
mnt-irt:     IRT-EXAMPLENET-AP
changed:     abc@examplenet.com 20101231
source:      Example net Pty Ltd

role:        D EXAMPLENETADMIN
address:     123 Example st.
address:     20097 Exampletown
country:     AU
phone:       +12 34 567890 000
fax-no:      +12 34 567890 010
e-mail:      noc@examplenet.com
admin-c:     ABC123-AP
tech-c:      ABC123-AP       
nic-hdl:     DE345-AP
remarks:     http://www.examplenet.com.au
notify:      hostmaster@examplenet.com.au
mnt-by:      MAINT-EXAMPLENET-AP
changed:     abc@examplenet.com 20101231              
source:      APNIC

Attribute status

Mandatory

Attribute must be included in the object. Failure to do so will result in errors.

Attribute Description
aut-num The Autonomous System number.
as-name A descriptive name used to identify an Autonomous System (AS).
admin-c The NIC-handle of an on-site contact ‘person’ object. As more than one person often fulfills a role function, there may be more than one admin-c listed.

  • In the web interface, the admin-c attribute contains a link to the ‘person‘ object the NIC-handle belongs to.
  • An administrative contact (admin-c) must be someone who is physically located at the site of the network.
tech-c The NIC-handle of a technical contact ‘person’ or ‘role’ object.  As more than one person often fulfills a role function, there may be more than one tech-c listed.

  • In the web interface, the tech-c attribute contains a link to the ‘person’ or ‘role’ object to which the NIC-handle belongs to.
  • A technical contact (tech-c) must be a person responsible for the day-to-day operation of the network, but does not need to be physically located at the site of the network.
mnt-by Lists a registered ‘mntner’ used to authorize and authenticate changes to this object.

  • A ‘mntner’ object is a database object used to authorize updates to the APNIC database.
  • When your database details are protected by a ‘mntner’ object, then only persons with access to the security information of that ‘mntner’ object will be able to change details.
  • In the web interface, the mnt-by attribute contains a link to the specified ‘mntner’.
mnt-irt The identifier of a registered ‘mntner’ object used to provide information about a Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT).
changed The email address of who last updated the database object and the date it occurred.

  • Every time a change is made to a database object, this attribute will show the email address of the person who made those changes.
  • All APNIC delegated IP addresses will initially record an APNIC email address in this attribute, as APNIC creates the first database object.
  • Please use the address format specified in RFC 822 – Standard for the Format of ARPA Internet Text Message and provide the date format using one of the following two formats: YYYYMMDD or YYMMDD.
changed: hostmaster@sparkynet.com.wf 20010921

IMPORTANT! This is NOT to be used as a contact address.

source The database where the object is registered.

 

Optional

Attribute may be deleted from the object. To delete an optional attribute you must also remove the attribute from the object template.  Failure to do so will result in errors.

Attribute Description
country Two letter ISO 3166 code of the country or economy where the admin-c is based. Please use UPPERCASE letters.

EXAMPLE
country: WF
member-of Identifies ‘as-set’ objects of which this aut-num object is intended to be a member. An aut-num may be useful
to include in an ‘as-set’ if your network maintains a number of Autonomous Systems or wishes to include its routes in an upstream provider’s routing information. To be included in an ‘as-set’, the

as-set’ object must:

  • include the keyword “ANY” or the AS number’s ‘mbrs-by-ref‘ attribute
  • and/or list the AS number in the members attribute

Note: do not include an ‘as-set’ in this attribute if this aut-num is explicitly mentioned in the ‘as-set’ object’s members attribute. Attempts
to do so will result in an authorization failure. See as-set objects for more information.

import The inbound IPv4 routing policy of the AS.

  • Use this attribute if you plan to use the APNIC Routing Registry to help automate the configuration of your routers.
  • The routing policy is specified by a series of expressions that describe peer networks the AS will accept routing information from. Each import attribute lists an AS number or address prefix and may include any
    costs associated with accepting routing information from that peer.
  • Information in the import attribute must use the following format:
import: from <peering-1> [action <action-1>]
         accept <filter>

For more information, see RFC 2622 – Routing Policy Specification Language (RPSL), section 6.1

mp-import The inbound IPv4 or IPv6 routing policy of the AS.

  • This attribute performs the same function as the ‘import’ attribute above. The difference is that mp-import allows both IPv4 and IPv6 address families to be specified.
  • Use this attribute if you plan to use the APNIC Routing Registry to help automate the configuration of your routers.
  • The routing policy is specified by a series of expressions that describe peer networks the AS will accept routing information from. Each mp-import attribute lists an AS number or address prefix and may include
    any costs associated with accepting routing information from that peer.
  • Information in the mp-import attribute must use the following format:
mp-import: [protocol <protocol-1>]
 [into <protocol-2>]
 afi <afi-list> 
 from <peering-1> [action <action-1>]
 accept (<filter>|<filter> 
 except <importexpression>|
 <filter> refine <importexpression>)

For more information, see RFC 4012 – Routing Policy Specification Language next generation (RPSLng), section 4.5.

export The outbound routing policy of the AS.

  • Use this attribute if you plan to use the APNIC Routing Registry to help automate the configuration of your routers.
  • The routing policy is specified by a series of expressions that describe which peer networks the AS will export routing information to. Each export attribute lists an AS number or address prefix.
  • Information in the export attribute must use the following format:
export: from <peering-1> [action <action-1>]
     accept <filter>

For more information, see RFC 2622 – Routing Policy Specification Language (RPSL), section 6.2.

mp-export This attribute performs the same function as the export attribute above. The difference is that mp-export allows both IPv4 and IPv6 address families to be specified.

  • Use this attribute if you plan to use the APNIC Routing Registry to help automate the configuration of your routers.
  • The routing policy is specified by a series of expressions that describe which peer networks the AS will export routing information to. Each mp-export attribute lists an AS number or address prefix.
  • Information in the mp-export attribute must use the following format:
mp-export: [protocol <protocol-1>] 
 [into <protocol-2>] 
           afi <afi-list> 
           to <mp-peering-1> [action <action-1>] 
           announce <mp-filter>

For more information see RFC 4012 – Routing Policy Specification Language next generation (RPSLng), section 4.5.

default The peer network the AS will use for as a default, that is, when the AS has no more-specific information on where to send the traffic.

  • Use this attribute if you plan to use the APNIC Routing Registry to help automate the configuration of your routers and you do not have a complex import/export policy.
  • Each default attribute lists an AS number or address prefix and may include a policy filter.
  • Information in the default attribute must use the following format (using multiple lines as necessary):
default: to <peering> [action <action>]
 [networks <filter>]

For more information, see RFC 2622 – Routing Policy Specification Language (RPSL), section 6.5.

mp-default This attribute performs the same function as the ‘default’ attribute above. The difference is that mp-default allows both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses to be specified.

  • Use this attribute if you plan to use the APNIC Routing Registry to help automate the configuration of your routers and you do not have a complex import/export policy.
  • Each mp-default attribute lists an AS number or address prefix and may include a policy filter.
  • Information in the mp-default attribute must use the following format (using multiple lines as necessary):
 mp-default: [protocol <protocol-1>]
 [into <protocol-1>]
          afi <afi-list>
          to <mp-peering> [action <action-1>]
          announce <filter>

For more information, see RFC 4012 – Routing Policy Specification Language next generation (RPSLng), section 4.5.

remarks Information about the object that cannot be stated in other attributes. May include a URL or email address.
notify The email address to which notifications of changes to this object will be sent.

mnt-lower The identifiers of registered ‘mntner’ objects used to control the creation of hierarchically named ‘as-set’ objects that use the name of the aut-num object. If no mnt-lower attribute is listed, mnt-by is referred to when authorizing hierarchically named ‘as-set’ objects.
mnt-routes The identifier of a registered ‘mntner’ object used to control the creation of ‘route’ objects that refer to this AS number in the route’s origin attribute.

Generated

Attribute value is generated by the database.

Instances of attribute allowed

Single
Attribute must appear only once in the object.
Multiple
Attribute may appear multiple times in the object. For example, you may wish to include more than one admin-c attribute.

 

Attribute search status

Primary key
Primary keys distinguish an object from all other objects in the database. To update a primary key, you must delete the entire object and them create a new object with the updated information.
Lookup key
Attribute can be queried in the database to return the object.  Please note, however, that a lookup key does not uniquely identify an object.
Inverse key
Attribute can be used when performing an inverse query using the -i flag. For example, the query

-i mntner <MNTNER-NAME>

will return all objects with the specified maintainer in the mnt-by attribute.

 

Using aut-num objects

  • Use aut-num objects to help configure your network’s routers.
    Aut-num
    objects, in combination with other routing related objects can be used to describe your routing policy in a compact form. This can help your network identify routing policy errors and omissions more easily than by reading long
    configuration files.
  • Use automated tools, such as IRRToolset, to retrieve information from the aut-num objects to create
    router configuration files for different architectures.

    Configuration files produced this way should be much less prone to errors than manually configured routers.
  • Aut-num objects can also be used by network administrators to debug network problems.