aut-num

Object Template

The object template includes information on how to complete the attribute values.

                Status          Instance     Search Status
aut-num:        [mandatory]     [single]     [primary/look-up key]
as-name:        [mandatory]  	[single]     [ ]
descr:          [mandatory]  	[multiple]   [ ]
country:        [mandatory]  	[single]     [ ]
member-of:      [optional]   	[multiple]   [inverse key]
import-via:     [optional]   	[multiple]   [ ]
import:         [optional]   	[multiple]   [ ]
mp-import:      [optional]   	[multiple]   [ ]
export-via:     [optional]   	[multiple]   [ ]
export:         [optional]   	[multiple]   [ ]
mp-export:      [optional]   	[multiple]   [ ]
default:        [optional]   	[multiple]   [ ]
mp-default:     [optional]   	[multiple]   [ ]
remarks:        [optional]   	[multiple]   [ ]
org:            [mandatory]  	[single]     [inverse key]
admin-c:        [mandatory]  	[multiple]   [inverse key]
tech-c:         [mandatory]  	[multiple]   [inverse key]
notify:         [optional]   	[multiple]   [inverse key]
mnt-lower:      [optional]   	[multiple]   [inverse key]
mnt-routes:     [optional]   	[multiple]   [inverse key]
mnt-by:         [mandatory]  	[multiple]   [inverse key]
mnt-irt:        [mandatory]  	[multiple]   [inverse key]
last-modified:  [generated]  	[single]     [ ]
source:         [mandatory]  	[single]     [ ]

Example

aut-num:        AS64496
as-name:        AS-EXAMPLENET
descr:          ASN for Example Net Pty Ltd
country:        AU
org:            ORG-EXAMPLENET-AP
import:         AS64500
export:         AS64494
admin-c:        DE345-AP
tech-c:         DE345-AP
notify:         noc@example.com
mnt-lower:      MAINT-EXAMPLENET-AP
mnt-routes:     MAINT-EXAMPLENET-AP
mnt-by:         MAINT-EXAMPLENET-AP
mnt-irt:        IRT-EXAMPLENET-AP
last-modified:  2018-08-30T07:50:19Z
source:         APNIC

role:           D EXAMPLENETADMIN
address:        123 Example st.
address:        20097 Exampletown
country:        AU
phone:          +12 34 567890 000
fax-no:         +12 34 567890 010
e-mail:         noc@examplenet.com
admin-c:        ABC123-AP
tech-c:         ABC123-AP       
nic-hdl:        DE345-AP
remarks:        http://www.examplenet.com.au
notify:         hostmaster@examplenet.com.au
mnt-by:         MAINT-EXAMPLENET-AP
last-modified:  2018-08-30T07:50:19Z             
source:         APNIC

Attribute status

Mandatory

Attribute must be included in the object. Failure to do so will result in errors.

AttributeDescription
aut-numThe Autonomous System number.
as-nameA descriptive name used to identify an Autonomous System (AS).
admin-c

The NIC-handle of an on-site contact ‘person’ object. As more than one person often fulfills a role function, there may be more than one admin-c listed.

  • In the web interface, the admin-c attribute contains a link to the ‘person‘ object the NIC-handle belongs to.
  • An administrative contact (admin-c) must be someone who is physically located at the site of the network.
tech-c

The NIC-handle of a technical contact ‘person’ or ‘role’ object.  As more than one person often fulfills a role function, there may be more than one tech-c listed.

  • In the web interface, the tech-c attribute contains a link to the ‘person’ or ‘role’ object to which the NIC-handle belongs to.
  • A technical contact (tech-c) must be a person responsible for the day-to-day operation of the network, but does not need to be physically located at the site of the network.
mnt-by

Lists a registered ‘mntner’ used to authorize and authenticate changes to this object.

  • A ‘mntner’ object is a database object used to authorize updates to the APNIC database.
  • When your database details are protected by a ‘mntner’ object, then only persons with access to the security information of that ‘mntner’ object will be able to change details.
  • In the web interface, the mnt-by attribute contains a link to the specified ‘mntner’.
mnt-irtThe identifier of a registered ‘mntner’ object used to provide information about a Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT).
last-modified

It is a time stamp that is generated by the system to reflect when the object was last modified.

last-modified: 2018-08-30T07:50:19Z
sourceThe database where the object is registered.

 

Optional

Attribute may be deleted from the object. To delete an optional attribute you must also remove the attribute from the object template.  Failure to do so will result in errors.

AttributeDescription
country

Two letter ISO 3166 code of the country or economy where the admin-c is based. Please use UPPERCASE letters.

EXAMPLE
country: WF
member-ofIdentifies ‘as-set’ objects of which this aut-num object is intended to be a member. An aut-num may be useful
to include in an ‘as-set’ if your network maintains a number of Autonomous Systems or wishes to include its routes in an upstream provider’s routing information. To be included in an ‘as-set’, the

as-set’ object must:

  • include the keyword “ANY” or the AS number’s ‘mbrs-by-ref‘ attribute
  • and/or list the AS number in the members attribute

Note: do not include an ‘as-set’ in this attribute if this aut-num is explicitly mentioned in the ‘as-set’ object’s members attribute. Attempts
to do so will result in an authorization failure. See as-set objects for more information.

import

The inbound IPv4 routing policy of the AS.

  • Use this attribute if you plan to use the APNIC Routing Registry to help automate the configuration of your routers.
  • The routing policy is specified by a series of expressions that describe peer networks the AS will accept routing information from. Each import attribute lists an AS number or address prefix and may include any
    costs associated with accepting routing information from that peer.
  • Information in the import attribute must use the following format:
import: from <peering-1> [action <action-1>]
         accept <filter>

For more information, see RFC 2622 – Routing Policy Specification Language (RPSL), section 6.1

mp-import

The inbound IPv4 or IPv6 routing policy of the AS.

  • This attribute performs the same function as the ‘import’ attribute above. The difference is that mp-import allows both IPv4 and IPv6 address families to be specified.
  • Use this attribute if you plan to use the APNIC Routing Registry to help automate the configuration of your routers.
  • The routing policy is specified by a series of expressions that describe peer networks the AS will accept routing information from. Each mp-import attribute lists an AS number or address prefix and may include
    any costs associated with accepting routing information from that peer.
  • Information in the mp-import attribute must use the following format:
mp-import: [protocol <protocol-1>]
 [into <protocol-2>]
 afi <afi-list> 
 from <peering-1> [action <action-1>]
 accept (<filter>|<filter> 
 except <importexpression>|
 <filter> refine <importexpression>)

For more information, see RFC 4012 – Routing Policy Specification Language next generation (RPSLng), section 4.5.

export

The outbound routing policy of the AS.

  • Use this attribute if you plan to use the APNIC Routing Registry to help automate the configuration of your routers.
  • The routing policy is specified by a series of expressions that describe which peer networks the AS will export routing information to. Each export attribute lists an AS number or address prefix.
  • Information in the export attribute must use the following format:
export: from <peering-1> [action <action-1>]
     announce <filter>

For more information, see RFC 2622 – Routing Policy Specification Language (RPSL), section 6.2.

mp-export

This attribute performs the same function as the export attribute above. The difference is that mp-export allows both IPv4 and IPv6 address families to be specified.

  • Use this attribute if you plan to use the APNIC Routing Registry to help automate the configuration of your routers.
  • The routing policy is specified by a series of expressions that describe which peer networks the AS will export routing information to. Each mp-export attribute lists an AS number or address prefix.
  • Information in the mp-export attribute must use the following format:
mp-export: [protocol <protocol-1>] 
 [into <protocol-2>] 
           afi <afi-list> 
           to <mp-peering-1> [action <action-1>] 
           announce <mp-filter>

For more information see RFC 4012 – Routing Policy Specification Language next generation (RPSLng), section 4.5.

default

The peer network the AS will use for as a default, that is, when the AS has no more-specific information on where to send the traffic.

  • Use this attribute if you plan to use the APNIC Routing Registry to help automate the configuration of your routers and you do not have a complex import/export policy.
  • Each default attribute lists an AS number or address prefix and may include a policy filter.
  • Information in the default attribute must use the following format (using multiple lines as necessary):
default: to <peering> [action <action>]
 [networks <filter>]

For more information, see RFC 2622 – Routing Policy Specification Language (RPSL), section 6.5.

mp-default

This attribute performs the same function as the ‘default’ attribute above. The difference is that mp-default allows both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses to be specified.

  • Use this attribute if you plan to use the APNIC Routing Registry to help automate the configuration of your routers and you do not have a complex import/export policy.
  • Each mp-default attribute lists an AS number or address prefix and may include a policy filter.
  • Information in the mp-default attribute must use the following format (using multiple lines as necessary):
 mp-default: [protocol <protocol-1>]
 [into <protocol-1>]
          afi <afi-list>
          to <mp-peering> [action <action-1>]
          announce <filter>

For more information, see RFC 4012 – Routing Policy Specification Language next generation (RPSLng), section 4.5.

remarksInformation about the object that cannot be stated in other attributes. May include a URL or email address.
notify

The email address to which notifications of changes to this object will be sent.

mnt-lowerThe identifiers of registered ‘mntner’ objects used to control the creation of hierarchically named ‘as-set’ objects that use the name of the aut-num object. If no mnt-lower attribute is listed, mnt-by is referred to when authorizing hierarchically named ‘as-set’ objects.
mnt-routesThe identifier of a registered ‘mntner’ object used to control the creation of ‘route’ objects that refer to this AS number in the route’s origin attribute.

Generated

Attribute value is generated by the database.

Instances of attribute allowed

Single
Attribute must appear only once in the object.
Multiple
Attribute may appear multiple times in the object. For example, you may wish to include more than one admin-c attribute.

 

Attribute search status

Primary key
Primary keys distinguish an object from all other objects in the database. To update a primary key, you must delete the entire object and them create a new object with the updated information.
Lookup key
Attribute can be queried in the database to return the object.  Please note, however, that a lookup key does not uniquely identify an object.
Inverse key

Attribute can be used when performing an inverse query using the -i flag. For example, the query

-i mntner <MNTNER-NAME>

will return all objects with the specified maintainer in the mnt-by attribute.

 

Using aut-num objects

  • Use aut-num objects to help configure your network’s routers.
    Aut-num
    objects, in combination with other routing related objects can be used to describe your routing policy in a compact form. This can help your network identify routing policy errors and omissions more easily than by reading long
    configuration files.
  • Use automated tools, such as IRRToolset, to retrieve information from the aut-num objects to create
    router configuration files for different architectures.

    Configuration files produced this way should be much less prone to errors than manually configured routers.
  • Aut-num objects can also be used by network administrators to debug network problems.

As part of the APNIC Whois Database quality improvement project, in early November 2018, all APNIC delegated ASNs will be protected by APNIC’s maintainer to avoid the aut-num object being deleted accidentally. APNIC Members can continue to update their aut-num object in MyAPNIC and contact the APNIC Helpdesk if they wish to update some protected attributes such as: as-name, descr, country and org.

Please take a minute to review your ASN record and make an update if any information is outdated.

As part of this project, APNIC will be deprecating the old process of using the ‘auto-dbm@apnic.net’ email to update the aut-num object. We recommend you use MyAPNIC to update your whois records.

APNIC will keep Members updated of progress.