The I* (I-star) group of organizations is a loose term to describe organizations that share responsibilities for coordinating the Internet technical infrastructure. APNIC collaborates with these organizations as part of the global Internet ecosystem.
The I* (I-star) organizations include the five Regional Internet Registries (RIRs), ICANN, ISOC, IETF, IAB, W3C and the regional associations of country code domain name registries.
Regional Internet Registries (RIRs)
Within their respective regions, RIRs such as APNIC provide services for the administration, management, distribution and registration of Internet number resources, specifically IPv4 addresses, IPv6 addresses, and Autonomous System numbers.
There are five RIRs:
Services are based, in part, on policies the communities of each RIR develop in a multi-stakeholder, bottom up approach that is open to all interested parties. The Policy Development Process within each RIR region defines the way these policies are developed and adopted.
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The Number Resource Organization (NRO) is a coordinating body for the five Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) that manage the distribution of Internet number resources including IP addresses and Autonomous System Numbers. The NRO contributes to an open, stable and secure Internet, through:
- Providing and promoting a coordinated Internet number registry system
- Being an authoritative voice on the multistakeholder model and bottom-up policy process in Internet governance
- Coordinating and supporting joint activities of the RIRs
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is the international organization responsible for the management and oversight of the coordination of the Internet’s domain name system and its unique identifiers such as IP addresses. ICANN oversees the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).
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The Address Supporting Organization (ASO) is one of three ICANN Supporting Organizations. The purpose of the ASO is to review and develop recommendations on IP address global policies and to advise the ICANN Board on IP addressing related matters. Since 2004, the NRO Number Council performs the role of the ASO within ICANN.
IANA is one of the Internet’s oldest institutions, with its activities dating back to the 1970s. Today the IANA functions are provided by ICANN affiliate Public Technical Identifiers (PTI). PTI’s various activities can be broadly grouped in to three categories:
- Domain names – IANA manages the DNS root, the .int and .arpa domains, and an IDN practices resource
- Number resources – IANA coordinates the global pool of IP and AS numbers, providing them to Regional Internet Registries
- Protocol Assignments – PTI manages the number systems of Internet protocols in conjunction with standards bodies
The Internet Society (ISOC) is a non-profit organization, founded in 1992, dedicated to ensuring the open development, evolution, and use of the Internet for the benefit of people throughout the world. Its purpose is to provide leadership in Internet related standards, education, and policy.
Tashi Phuntsho participated in the Internet Society's InterCommunity 2020 — Securing Internet Routing event, held online on 24 June 2020.
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The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is a large, open, international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers who are interested in the evolution of Internet architecture and its smooth operation. The IETF is open to any interested individual. The technical work of the IETF is carried out in its working groups, which are organized by topic into several areas (e.g., routing, transport, security, and more). The IETF holds meetings three times a year, however much of the work is handled via mailing lists.
The IAB is both an IETF committee and an ISOC advisory body.
It is responsible for architectural oversight of IETF activities, Internet Standards Process oversight and appeal, and the appointment of the RFC Editor.
The IAB is also responsible for the management of the IETF protocol parameter registries.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an international community where Member organizations, a full-time staff, and the public work together to develop web standards.